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Working Online

This LibGuide answers many frequently asked questions about how to have the best experience when accessing and working with online materials.

Operating Systems & Web Browsers

Recommended Operating Systems & Web Browsers

These are the only operating systems and web browsers that the Library recommends and is able to support. Using other operating systems or browsers, or outdated versions, may produce unreliable results. For best results, use the most recent versions of operating systems and web browsers.

Operating Systems


Your PC's operating system should be running at least Windows 10, Home or Professional edition, and no earlier version.

Apple macOS

Your Mac should be running at least macOS 11, Big Sur.


The operating system of your iPad or iPhone should be iOS 13 or later. It's worth noting there are subtle differences between the iOS operating system on iPads and iPhones.


The operating system of your Android device should be version 11 or later.

Web Browsers

The vendors of the research platforms the Library uses support only very recent versions of the following browsers.:

  • Chrome, Firefox, Microsoft Edge for Windows 10;
  • Safari, Chrome, or Firefox for macOS and iOS;
  • Chrome, Firefox, Microsoft Edge for the Android operating system.
  • The use of Internet Explorer, even the last version, v. 11, is no longer supported by any of the vendors of the online services that the Library provides. Therefore, the Library does not support use of Internet Explorer.
  • Some vendors may not support the use of certain browsers for their platforms. If you have problems with Academic Writer, be aware that the vendor, the American Psychological Association, does not support use of Microsoft Edge with Academic Writer.

Updating Browsers

  • Use the Google Chrome site to obtain or update Chrome for either Windows or macOS.
  • Use the Get Firefox site to obtain or update Firefox for either Windows or macOS.
  • Use the Safari Update site to update Safari for macOS.
  • Microsoft Edge is automatically updated as part of the Windows update service. However, if you still have the pre-January 2020 version of Edge, you need to update to the January 2020 version.

Tablets and Smartphones

  • In most cases, the interfaces for all the research services the Library provides have been written for use on current tablets and smartphones.
  • While all possible devices and combinations of operating system and browser have not been tested, you should be able to use recent iOS or Android devices without any problems or lack of functionality.
  • As is true of any computer, OS and browser combination, the more recent the version, the more likely you are to have a good working experience.