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Jim Crow, The Holocaust, and Today

The Black Horror on the Rhine

The Black Horror on the Rhine

Following Germany’s defeat in World War I, they lost their African colonies and the French placed African soldiers in the Rhineland to maintain control. This move sparked a moral panic dubbed the Black Horror on the Rhine, a panic that claimed that Senegalese and African soldiers committed acts of sexual violence against German women in the Rhineland producing children who the press deemed Rheinlandbastarde. These children became ostracized, and Guido Kreutzer, in his 1921 novel Die Schwarze Schmach: Der Roman des geschändeten Deutschlands said the children were “physically and morally degenenerate” and were not German citizens. As well, their mothers ceased to be German due to their relationships with non-white men.

This panic did not go away, and Adolf Hitler employed it in his own propaganda and writing. In Mein Kampf, he linked the Black Horror on the Rhine to the conspiracy theory of a Jewish world order. He wrote, “7,000,000 people languish under alien rule and the main artery of the German people flows through the playground of black African hordes…It was and is the Jews who bring the Negro to the Rhineland, always with the same concealed thought and with the clear goal of destroying by the bastardization of the white race they hate.” Hitler claimed that a Jewish controlled France placed the African troops in the Rhineland and that Jews should be held responsible for bastardizing Aryan blood.

USHMM History Unfolded

USHMM History Unfolded

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) hosts History Unfolded, a database for American newspapers, both national and local, from 1933-1945 detailing the Holocaust in contemporary fashion. The site has lesson plans, curated collections focusing on specific events, and much more. You can access History Unfolded at the USHMM's website.  

Article below found through History Unfolded. It is Kelly Miller's "Hitler Goes America One Better" in The Indianapolis Recorder on November 30, 1935.



B: Philosophy, Psychology, Religion

Krimstein, Ken. The Three Escapes of Hannah Arendt: A Tyranny of Truth. 2018. B945.A694 K75

D: World History and History of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, etc. 

Delmont, Matthew. Half American: The Epic Story of African Americans Fighting World War II at Home and Abroad. 2022. D810.B53

Spiegelman, Art. Maus: A Survivor's Tale. 1997. DS135.P63 S68

E: History of the Americas

We Charge Genocide: The History Petition to the United Nations for the Relief from a Crime of the United States Government against the Negro People. Edited by William L. Patterson. 1951. E185.61 .C592

Smith, Lillian. Killers of the Dream. 1961. E185.61 .S64

J: Political Science

Paxton, Robert. The Anatomy of Fascism. 2004. JC481.P373

Snyder, Timothy. On Tyranny: Twenty Lessons from the Twentieth Century. 2021. JC495.S55

Stanley, Jason. How Fascism Works: The Politics of Us and Them. 2018. JC481.S67

K: Law

Whitman, James Q. Hitler's American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law, 2017. KK4743.W55 2017

P: Language & Literature

Johnson, Mat and Warren Pleece. Incognegro: A Graphic Mystery. 2018. PN6727.J573 I53

Lewis, Sinclair. It Can't Happen Here. 1935. PS3523.E94 I8

Orringer, Julie. The Flight Portfolio. 2019. PS3615.R59

Morales, Robert and Kyle Baker. Captain America: truth: Red, White, and Black. 2009. PN6728.C35 M67

Smith, William Gardner. The Stone Face. 1963. PS3537.M8685

Spiegelman, Art. MetaMaus. 2011. PN6727.S6 Z465 

Williams, John A. Clifford's Blues, 1999. PS3573.I4495